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    Article 21.3 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights states “The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.”

    However, elections can be operated in a way that subverts the will of the people. In the United States, the electoral college and “first past the post” voting can result in a winner that is not supported by a majority of the population. In contrast, ranked choice voting produces results that are supported by a majority of the population every time. Also, political party entanglement captures the electoral process for one or two dominant parties and prevents other parties from expanding their reach.

    Voting districts must be selected to ensure fairness and rules about who may vote and how voting happens must be carefully considered to ensure they secure elections without suppressing the right of any segment of the population to participate in elections.

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